10 Assigning and Testing Algebraic Properties

Sometimes algebraic expressions can be further simplified if there is additional information about the value ranges of its components. The following section describes how to inform REDUCE of such assumptions.

10.1 REALVALUED Declaration and Check


The declaration realvalued may be used to restrict variables to the real numbers. The syntax is:


For such variables the operator impart gives the result zero. Thus, with

julia> Algebra.realvalued(:x,:y)

the expression impart(x+sin(y)) is evaluated as zero. You may also declare an operator as real valued with the meaning, that this operator maps real arguments always to real values. Example:

julia> Algebra.operator(:h); Algebra.realvalued(:h,:x)

julia> Algebra.impart(:(h(x)))
julia> Algebra.impart(:(h(w)))

Such declarations are not needed for the standard elementary functions.


To remove the realvalued propery from a variable or an operator use the declaration notrealvalued with the syntax:

julia> Algebra.notrealvalued(v1,...vn)

The boolean operator realvaluedp allows you to check if a variable, an operator, or an operator expression is known as real valued. Thus,

julia> Algebra.realvalued(:x)

julia> R"write if realvaluedp(sin x) then ~yes~ else ~no~"

julia> R"write if realvaluedp(sin z) then ~yes~ else ~no~"

would print first yes and then no. For general expressions test the impart for checking the value range:

julia> Alebra.realvalued(:x,:y); R"w:=(x+i*y); w1:=conj w" |> rcall

julia> Algebra.impart(:(w*w1))

julia> Algebra.impart(:(w*w))

10.2 Declaring Expressions Positive or Negative

Detailed knowlege about the sign of expressions allows REDUCE to simplify expressions involving exponentials or abs. You can express assumptions about the positivity or negativity of expressions by rules for the operator sign. Examples:

julia> Algebra.abs(:(a*b*c))

julia> Algebra.rlet((:(sign(a))=>1,:(sign(b))=>1)); :(abs(a*b*c) |> rcall
:(abs(c) * a * b)
julia> Algebra.on(:precise); Algebra.sqrt(:(x^2-2x+1))
:(abs(x - 1))

reduce> ws where sign(x-1)=>1;

x - 1

Here factors with known sign are factored out of an abs expression.

julia> Algebra.on(:precise); Algebra.on(:factor)
reduce> (q*x-2q)^w;  

((x - 2)*q) 

reduce> ws where sign(x-2)=>1;

 w        w  
q *(x - 2)  

In this case the factor $(x - 2)^w$ may be extracted from the base of the exponential because it is known to be positive.

Note that REDUCE knows a lot about sign propagation. For example, with $x$ and $y$ also $x + y$, $x + y + π$ and $(x + e)∕y^2$ are known as positive. Nevertheless, it is often necessary to declare additionally the sign of a combined expression. E.g. at present a positivity declaration of $x- 2$ does not automatically lead to sign evaluation for $x- 1$ or for $x$.